The few followers of Khara who were still alive, panicked at the sight of their masters death, and ran away. But one rakshasa, Akampana by name, managed to escape. He hastened to Lanka and appeared before king Ravana.
Ravana, the king of Lanka, was also the supreme master of the rakshasas. He belonged to the Pulasthya dynasty. Ravana was the son of Vishravassu, who was the grandson of Pulasthya Muni.His mother was Kaikasi. Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana were his brothers. Khara and Dushana were his stepbrothers. Ravana had ten heads and twenty arms. He was a veritable walking mountain.
Ravana was a warrior of rare valour. He had defeated the gods themselves in many battles. But he was a great sinner. He used to impede religious acts; he used to pollute sacrifices. He had abducted several women. He had defeated Takshaka and carried away his wife. He had overcome Kubera in Kailasa and taken away his Pushpaka Vimana. He had destroyed Kuberas garden, the Chaitraratha,and the famous Lake Nalini. He had secured a boon that no living being except a man could kill him.
Akampana came to Ravana and said, Maharaja, all the rakshasas of Janasthana have been killed.Khara and Dushana have also been killed. Ravana flew into a rage and thundered, What is it you are telling? Who destroyed such a mighty army? Tell me who killed Khara and Dushana. I will at once exterminate them. Akampana narrated all that had happened in Janasthana. He described Sri Ramas feats. But Ravana boasted of his own prowess and said, I will kill that miserable human being straightway.
Akampana replied, Maharaja, I beg of you, listen to me. Overcoming Sri Rama is not such an easy matter as you imagine. He is a man of great prowess. With him is his brother. Together they can overcome the whole world. It is, therefore, not advisable to encounter the two of them and have our huge army wiped out. Instead, I will suggest a plan. It is best to follow it. Ravana asked him what his plan was. Akampana unfolded his design: Maharaja, there is a young woman with Rama and Lakshmana. She is Sri Ramas wife. She is very beautiful. It would be difficult to find a woman to match her loveliness, in the realms of gods, or on earth or in the lower world. Rama and Seeta are a very devoted couple. If somehow you can abduct Seeta, in his grief Sri Rama will give up food, drink and sleep and will die. And you will possess a beautiful youngwoman.
Ravana pondered. Akampanas plan seemed quite acceptable. Straightway he ascended his chariot.He travelled in the skies and reached the ashram of Mareecha. Mareecha greeted him and made enquiries. He then asked him why he was paying the visit. Ravana narrated the story of Kharas death at the hands of Sri Rama and the annihilation of his army in Janasthana. He told him that he would wreak vengeance by abducting Sri Ramas wife, and sought Mareechas help in the undertaking.
Mareecha was the son of Tataki. Before this, he had polluted Vishwamitras sacrifice, and been punished harshly by Sri Rama. Thereafter, he had built an ashram for himself and was living in seclusion. Now, when Ravana sought his help to kidnap Sri Ramas wife, he was scared.
Mareecha said, Ravanasura, how did such a thought occur to you? Whoever suggested this suicidal plan to you? Have you recognised the danger behind this plan? Whoever it might be, he is an enemy disguised as a friend. He must be one looking forward to your ruin. What a mad deed it is to abduct a virtuous woman like Seetadevi! You do not know anything about Sri Rama. Do not provoke Sri Rama who fights like a roused elephant. Do not attempt this mad misdventure of stabbing and awaking a sleeping lion. This will be disastrous to you. All Lanka will be reduced to ashes. Go back to Lanka; give up this evil adventure.Ravana listened to Maricha and returned to Lanka.
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Shurpanakha’s evil advice
Shurpanakhi had witnessed Kharas death in the battle. Her heart was ready to burst. Roaring in rage she hastened to Lanka. She entered Ravanas palace. The moment she saw Ravana grief overwhelmed her. She remembered her brother Khara. That Lakshmana had cut off her ears and nose was stinging her pride. Weeping loudly she approached Ravana. Grief, rage and obduracy tormented her. She said to Ravana, Brother, know you not about the terrible pests that have descended on us? Know you not that an insignificant human being has rubbed out your fourteen thousand strong forces at the border? You are an emperor, and yet you sit with folded hands,without doing anything to succour them. How can you tolerate your sisters ears and nose being cut off, and her being disfigured? A king must shoulder the responsibility of protecting his subjects and his soldiers. But you are immersed in pleasures and have forgotten all other things. You know that borders of your empire are under attack and yet you do nothing. Your younger brothers, Khara and Dushana, are dead. Your sister is a victim of cruel attacks. But yours is a heart of stone. A king like you is of no use to anyone.
Ravana was wretched at the sight of Shurpanakhi. Her words troubled him. He could neither attack Sri Rama nor be passive “ that was his plight. He said, Shurpanakhi, who is this fellow called Rama? How could he, single- handed, destroy so many persons? Are our people cripples without arms and legs, or are they cowards? Or else, how could so many, fighting together, taste defeat? Shurpanakhi
replied, Brother, do not imagine that Sri Rama is just an ordinary fellow. He is a man of rare valour and rare prowess. I have seen any number of gods, danavas, gandharvas, yakshas and kinnaras,but never have I beheld a valiant man equal to him. He has long arms. He is very handsome. A bow is the only weapon he has. But, bending that bow, he can shoot hundreds of arrows, simultaneously. No matter how numerous his enemies, he can cut them all to pieces. He looks very mild. But, when he fights, he is fierce like Lord Rudra. He killed Khara, Dushana and Trishira, and despatched fourteen thousand rakshasa to Deaths kingdom. He spared me because I am a woman.
Brother, with him is his wife, Seeta by name. She is the daughter of Janaka, the king of Videha. She is lovely beyond words. She is the most enchanting of all the women I have seen. I went up to them because I wanted to kidnap her and present her to you. But that cruel Lakshmana disfigured me. I sought the protection of Khara and Dushana. Poor brothers, they, too, fell to Ramas arrows. O brother, I have such a formidable brother as you and yet, do I have to suffer this? So saying she wept profusely. And then she said, Brother, it is not right on your part to be passive. Go at once to Janasthana and destroy Rama and Lakshmana. And marry Seeta. Only then will I be comforted.
At these words Ravanas desire sprouted again. Yes, he decided. I must kill Rama and Lakshmana and marry Seeta. He went to the place where chariots were sheltered and asked his charioteer to get his chariot ready.
Ravanas chariot was made of gold. It could take him wherever he willed. On the earth, on water or in the air, no matter where, he could travel smoothly and swiftly. Ravana ascended the chariot and travelled towards the sea. As the Supreme Daithya endowed with ten heads and twenty shoulders travelled in his chariot, a mountain seemed to be on the move. The chariot reached the seashore. It was a charming place. Swans and herons moved about there. Great sages were engaged in tapas. On the way pellucid pools appeared. He also saw cities smiling with wealth and crops. Finally, Ravana reached Mareechas ashram.
Mareecha welcomed Ravana and said, Great Ravana, how is it you are back? All are, well in the capital, arent they? No one is in trouble I hope. Ravana replied,Mareecha, I am now in a difficult plight. You know what happened in Janasthana. My brothers Khara and Dushana who were there, and the thousands of rakshasas have been slaughtered by Rama, as I told you. But that is not all. That Ramas brother Lakshmana has cut off the ears and nose of my dear sister Shurpanakhi and disfigured her. I am enraged. I wish to be avenged on him, and chastise him severely for this shocking wrong. I have decided to carry away Ramas wife. You must help me.
Ravanas words threw Mareecha into a panic. His mouth dried up. His limbs began to shake. With folded hands he managed to a stammer ; Great Ravana, you are in a towering fury. In your hunger for revenge you are talking like a simpleton. You do not have the restraint you need to judge whether what you are doing is proper or improper. You do not have patience to weigh your decision and decide whether it is right or wrong, just or unjust. Therefore, however justly I may speak, my advice may not appeal to you. But I will do my duty.
King Ravana, you can find many people who speak pleasantly. And many people are deceived by pleasant words. Even if they do not realize whether such words will spell prosperity or ruin, people like only those who speak pleasingly. But people do not relish excellent advice rendered with good intentions, but not sweet to the ears. Fools do not relish good advice just as a patient dislikes a bitter medicine, however effective it may be. King Ravana, I believe you are no fool. I hope you will tread the path of justice at least after you hear me.
King of Lanka, you know not the prowess of Sri Rama. Your messenger Akampana or your sister Shurpanakhi may have been motivated by selfishness to speak lightly of Sri Rama. You have not even seen him. You have just heard what others have told you. You have not investigated their reports and ascertained how much of it is true and how much exaggeration. You should not depend solely on reports and believe anything. You have to see things yourself. You say that Sri Rama killed your younger brothers Khara and Dushana, as well as Trishira, and also fourteen thousand soldiers who were all in Janasthana. Should not this at least warn you? If the man whom you disdain as a mere human being could be so devastating, should you not ponder over his strength?
O Dashashira – the ten headed one, you know little or nothing about Sri Rama. But I know a good deal. From my own experience I know how powerful he was and how zealous in destroying evil people, even at the age of fourteen. Do you know how he assailed and brought down both me and my brother Subhahu when we were trying to disrupt the sacrifice of Sage Vishwamitra? With a single arrow he killed Subhahu. I was driven to the seashore and hurled there. Somehow I managed to survive and am here. When Sri Rama came to this forest, impelled by my former hatred, I tried to disguise myself as different illusory creatures and provoke him. But even if I behold him at a distance, I shiver. A thrill of fear passes down my spine at the sight of his bow. No Ravana, do not attempt this mad adventure.
O Dashakanta – the one possessing ten necks, you plan to abduct Seetadevi, do you? Whoever put this idea into your head? He should be a prize fool, or else your bitter enemy. He must be some one who is bitterly jealous of your happiness and prosperity, or, a traitor who wants you and your people to be miserable and utterly ruined. Otherwise, he would not have instigated you to try such a suicidal plan. This is prompted by some evil design. This is meant to draw you to the path of evil. This is the doing of a sinner. It is a horrible thing “ prompting others to do evil. Do not fall a prey to this. Sentence to death whoever made this suggestion.
Sri Rama is a man of rare prowess. He is righteous. He has never strayed from the path of virtue. It is not right to harass such a man. Do not commit this sin. And, do not ask me to be a partner in it.
Marichas words inflamed the wrath of Ravana. As Maricha had said, he was already bankrupt of sense. He had but one yearning now, and that was to capture Seetadevi somehow or the other. He said, Mareecha, I have not come here to be preached to. I want your help, not your advice. I am determined to possess Ramas wife, and I shall do it.
Mareecha, you are the master of art of disguise. Go to Panchavati as a gold deer. Hover near the hut. Seeta will see the golden deer and desire it. She will urge Rama to bring her the deer. Rama will follow you. Elude him and take him far from the hut. If he shoots an arrow, imitate his voice and cry aloud, O Seeta, O Lakshmana. Lakshmana will then race to his brothers help. Seeta will be alone and I will carry her off. You must obey me, or else I will right now cut you to pieces. So saying Ravana waved his sword.
Mareecha realized it was no use counselling Ravana. He thought it would be better to die at the hands of Sri Rama than to be killed by Ravana. He agreed to abide by the wishes of Ravana.
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The illusionary dear
Ravana and Mareecha ascended the chariot and came to Dandakaranya. They approached Sri Ramas ashram. Mareecha transformed himself into a golden deer. It was an enchanting deer. Its horns were like sapphire. There were silver spots on the golden skin. Its eyes shone like diamond. It was an irresistible deer.
The illusory deer grazed near the ashram and hovered there. It would leap and frisk about. The sport and appearance of the deer were thrilling.
When the deer sported near the ashram, Seeta was culling flowers. All of a sudden the golden deer appeared. Her eyes grew wide open with wonder and delight. She yearned to possess it. She called Sri Rama and Lakshmana who were within the hut and pointed out the deer to them, and they, too were delighted. How lovely!, said Sri Rama. But Lakshmana was suspicious. He said, Brother, this is
not really a deer. There are rakshasas in the forest. One of them may be moving about in this guise.We have to be careful. But Seeta said, This is a real deer. O see how enchanting it is! It looks at us yearningly. Perhaps it is hungry. Bring it here, and we will feed it. Let us adopt this deer. I am very much attracted to it.
Sri Rama said, Seeta, the deer is no doubt fascinating. But Lakshmana has spoken the truth. Can there be golden deer? This must be a cheat. Let us not entertain inadvisable desires and suffer. But Seeta was obstinate. She implored her husband: bring me the deer somehow. Her appeal moved Sri Rama. He thought, Poor Seeta, she has been putting up with difficulties in this forest, and she has never asked for anything. Rarely does she yearn for anything. Let me fulfil her desire at least this once. He took up his bow and set out, and pursued the deer.
The deer leapt at once. Swiftly it ran away. It danced and hopped. Sri Rama ran after it. The deer seemed to be so, so near, and then would leap away far from him. It would come so close that it seemed he could easily catch it, and then race with the speed of lightning and disappear in the midst of the trees. Thus it went beyond rivers and hills and drew him far, far away. And Sri Rama pursued it.
Try as he might, Sri Rama was unable to catch the creature. The closer he got to it, the farther it would go. For a moment Sri Rama thought of returning. But he recalled that Seeta would be waiting eagerly. So he decided that, if he could not catch the deer alive, he would at least take the dead animal to the ashram. So he shot an arrow at it.
The arrow unerringly pierced the body of the deer. At once it assumed the form of a rakshasa.Mareecha imitated the voice of Sri Rama, cried aloud as if in great pain, Oh Seeta, Oh Lakshmana and died. Sri Rama now realized that this was a game played by the rakshasas. He felt unhappy that he had walked into their trap. What if Lakshmana, hearing this cry, comes here? How can be Seeta alone in the ashram? he asked himself. He was scared. We are caught up in some knavery. What has happened bodes ill for us “ so he was troubled and hastened towards the ashram.
Seeta and Lakshmana were awaiting Ramas arrival. Seeta was savouring the recollection of the loveliness of the deer. How delightful it would be if we can have it! So she was thinking in excitement. She was waiting for Sri Rama to return.
Hours passed after Sri Rama set out in pursuit of the deer. But there was no sign of Sri Rama. Seeta was frightened. She was alarmed that he might be in danger. Even as she was troubled by misgivings came the terrifying cry, Oh Seeta, Oh Lakshmana!
Seeta was startled when she heard the cry. She was trembling from head to foot. She said, O have my misgivings come true? Lakshmana, some mishap has befallen Sri Rama. Go at once and find out what has happened. But Mareechas cry did not alarm Lakshmana. He said, The voice resembles that of Sri Rama, but it is not his cry. Do not be frightened; no harm can befall my brother. But Seeta was not comforted. She said,Lakshmana, I am frightened. Some misfortune has befallen your brother. Go at once and rescue him. However hard Lakshmana tried to convince her, she would not listen. So Lakshmana had no choice. He went in search of Sri Rama.
This was precisely the moment Ravana was waiting for. He wanted just that Seeta should be alone.As soon as Lakshmana left the ashram, Ravana assumed the disguise of a sanyasi and came to the hut of leaves. Seeta welcomed the sanyasi with reverence and treated him hospitably.
Ravana accepted her hospitality. He then said, Lovely woman, who are you? Where is your husband? Why have you come here? Seeta had no suspicions. She narrated their story. She then enquired of him, Holy sir, who are you? Why have you come to the forest? Which is your ashram?Ravana replied, Seeta, I am no sanyasi. I am Ravana, the emperor of Lanka. Not one of the gods or rakshasas can equal me in valour. I am the equal of Kubera in wealth. I am enamoured of your loveliness. Marry me; let us be happy in Lanka.
Seetas face turned pale at these words. She was tremulous like a dry leaf in the wind. At the same time she felt rage and revulsion. She said to Ravana. You wretch, you have put on the guise of a sanyasi; how can you have such thoughts? Why do you desire another mans wife? Give up such filthy thoughts. Do not invite the wrath of a chaste wife. If my husband Sri Rama returns now he will reduce you to ashes with a single arrow. Quietly, take the path that brought you here.
Her words infuriated Ravana. His pride was hurt for he was the monarch of Lanka, and she was disdaining his words. He said sternly, Obey me without another word. Do not glorify your husbands valour before me. I have made even Devendra bite the dust, what is your husband before me? Come with me submissively, or else I will carry you away by force. He then assumed his real form. Seeta looked defiantly at the ten-headed huge rakshasa with twenty arms and said, King of rakshasas,you boast of your matchless valour, dont you? If you are really brave, wait until my husband returns and fight with him. Do not imagine that my husband is an ordinary man and utter mere trash. Why speak of you alone, even if you bring your army and venture to fight with Rama, he can reduce you to mere shreds.
Ravana turned red with anger at the affront. Without a word he dragged Seeta and pushed her into his chariot. Seeta struggled, wept and cried aloud, Is there no one to rescue me? Again she cried aloud, Rama, Lakshmana; Race to my rescue. This sinner Ravana is dragging me away. She appealed piteously, O birds of the forest, O animals, Come and save me! She begged the plants and trees around with folded hands, O trees and plants! Am I not your companion? Did I not water you every day? Why are you silent now? This wretch is carrying me away. Save me. It was a sight to melt the hardest heart. A helpless woman was in the clutches of the worst villain.
Seeta wept most heartrendingly but Ravana was unmoved. His heart was bereft of all pity. And the passion for Seeta had driven away what little sense he had. There was nothing except lust, wrath and cruelty in his heart. He was now mad and blind with lust. He dragged away Seeta and set out.
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As Ravana was abducting Seeta she saw a huge king of birds. She recognized him as Jatayu, the friend of Dasharatha. When Sri Rama and Lakshmana came to the forest he had given an assurance of whatever help he could extend. Seeta cried with all her might, O Father Jatayu, look at my plight. This Ravana is carrying me away in the absence of Rama and Lakshmana in the ashram.
Jatayu heard her cry. He was deeply moved by the misfortune which had overtaken the beloved daughter-in- law of his dear friend. He was old but he was determined to encounter Ravana. So he soared high with his huge frame and checked Ravana. He said, Ravana, your end seems to be at hand; or else, you would not have attempted this evil adventure. It is unrighteous to abduct another mans wife. Leave Seeta in her hut and return to Lanka. But Ravana turned a deaf ear to the words of the Bird-King and proceeded in his chariot. Jatayu was enraged. He obstructed the chariot. His was an enormous body, His wings were huge like the waves of the sea. Jatayu covered the chariot completely with his wings. He began to harass Ravana with his long claws and his beak sharp as a spear. Flapping his wings wildly he struck at all the ten heads of Ravana.
Jatayu was old but his prowess was not inconsiderable. Ravana could not bear his onslaught. He then unsheathed his sword and began to fight.
Ravana was younger than Jayayu. Besides, he carried several weapons. He had twenty hands with which to wield them. He had magical powers and could assume whatever form he wished. But poor Jatayu was very old; and his beak and claws were his only weapons. But he was undaunted. He did not remain passive because of his helplessness. He began to assail Ravana with whatever strength he could muster.
Ravana could not bear the blows that Jatayu rained on him. Jatayu suddenly pounced on Ravana and overpowered him. He pierced his body with his beak. He dug into his body with his claws. By the time Ravana could take up his weapons Jatayu had wounded him all over. Furious, Ravana unsheathed his sword and lunged at Jatayu. He pierced him with his spear. He also shot arrows at him. Blood streamed from Jatayus body. But unflinching, he fought thrillingly with Ravana. As Ravana and Jatayu fought, the entire forest seemed to shudder. The animals of the forest fled as far as they could. Birds on branches of trees flew away at once. Their cries filled the sky.
Ravana sliced off the wings of Jatayu with his sword. The King of Eagles fell to the earth with a loud thud. He could no longer fight. Blood flowed out of his body like a stream. He said, Ravana, it is a fleeting victory you have won. Unrighteousness can never triumph. Sri Rama will pursue you and kill you. But Ravana turned a deaf ear to his words and, violently restraining Seeta, travelled towards Lanka.
So Seetas last hope withered. She reproached her ill luck, blamed herself for not listening to Lakshamanas words, and wept loudly.
As Ravanas vehicle sped across the sky, Seeta saw below a mountain. A number of Vanaras (Monkeys) were sitting there. She felt that they could perhaps be of some help. She removed the ornaments she was wearing, tied them up in her upper garment, and threw it down.
The mountain was known as Rishyamuka Parvatha.Sugreeva, a king of monkeys, and his followers lived there. The bundle Seeta threw down fell near them. The Vanaras were amazed. They looked up and saw Pushpaka Vimana moving across the sky. There sat a rakshasa in it and a woman was weeping heartrendingly and looking down at them. She was wailing, crying O Rama! O Lakshmana!
The Vanaras did not know what to do. Then they decided, Let us keep this bundle. The woman was wailing so heartrendingly; it looks as if some rakshasa was kidnapping her. If any one comes in search of her, we will give this bundle.
Ravana carried Seeta to Lanka. Lanka was an opulent land. Where ever one turned one saw heaps and heaps of diamonds and opals. Ravanas palace rivalled Lord Indras mansion. He had a palace for summer, another for winter, a third for the rainy season and so on. Ravana displayed all his wealth to Seeta. He had imagined that, since he was as wealthy as Kubera himself, Seeta would be dazzled by the display and would be attracted to him. He also told her how he had humbled the gods themselves in several battles. He said, There is none to equal me in opulence. The man who can match me in prowess has not been born. Therefore, marry me and live happily.
Seeta was so revolted at the very sight of him that she did not wish to speak to him. She felt it was a sin even to look at him. She placed a blade of grass before her as if to indicate that was all his wealth was worth. Looking at the blade as if she was addressing it, she said,You Rakshasa wretch, I have told you this in so many ways, but you seem incapable of understanding this. Yours may be a vast empire. You may be immensely powerful. You may be the equal of Kubera in wealth. But none of
this can allure me. I am a married woman, and Sri Ramachandra is my husband. He is my God. I shall not look at any man except him.
Ravana, it is not right to test a chaste wife. It will not do you any good. Do not imagine that Sri Rama is an ordinary man. You know not his prowess. It will suffice if he empowers a blade of grass with a spell and hurls it at you. The entire city of Lanka will burn and turn to ashes.
You are a stranger to Sri Ramas wrath. By your action you have brought sheer devastation on your land. Sri Rama will come with Lakshmana and grind you and your soldiers into mere powder. Your wives and those of your warriors will be widows. There will not be a single man in Lanka, only widows will be left to weep. Only the heads of soldiers will be seen everywhere in Lanka. Rivers of blood will be let loose. Packs of wolves and foxes will howl in broad day light. Such a dreadful scene will greet you. Listen to me at least now. Take me back to Sri Rama honourably, beg Sri Rama to forgive you. My husband is full of mercy, and will forgive you. You will live.
When he heard Seetas words Ravana ground his teeth in volcanic anger. He summoned the rakshasis who were near by and said to them, When I ask her to marry me she preaches to me. Take her straight to Ashoka Vana, and detain her there. Make her love me, no matter how. If she does not marry me within twelve months from now I will have her trampled under foot by an elephant. The rakshasis accordingly took Seeta to Ashoka Vana.
Ashoka Vana was an enchanting garden. The rakshasis confined Seeta there. They mounted guard over her so that she could not escape. And day and night they would pester her to agree to marry Ravana. They tormented her in many ways. But Seeta Devi remained steadfast. She would not pay any heed to their words. She firmly believed that some day her husband would come there and rescue her and take her with him.
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Examination on Lesson – 11
Choose answers to all the questions. All the best !!
Q1. What plan did Ravana suggest to the Rakshasa Maricha ?
Ans: a)To go and fight Shri Rama b) To draw away Shri Rama using illusionary dear and abduct Sita Devi c)Suggest Sita Devi to come to Lanka of her own will d) Send Shurpaneka to convince Sita Devi
Q2. Why did Laxmana leave Sita Devi alone ?
Ans: a)Because Shri Rama had told him to come after some time b) Because hearing Maricha call Sita Devi’s and Laxmana’s name so, Sita Devi insisted to go c) He wanted the Dear himself d) He wanted to go for hunting
Q3 Why did Jattayu attacked Ravana ?
Ans: a) Because both were old enemies b) Because Ravana challenged Jattayu c) Because Sita Devi called for his help when Ravana abducted her d) Because he love to fight
Q4. Why did Sita Devi throw some of her ornaments to some Vanaras ?
Ans: a)She thought that some how the Vanaras could be of some help in future b) She wanted to gift them to Vanaras c) The ornaments fell accidentally d) She did not want Ravana to get those ornaments
Q5. Where did Ravana keep Sita Devi finally ?
Ans: a) In his Palace b) in the Sea c) In Dandakaranya d) In Ashok Vana
Q6. What job did Ravana entrust the Rakshasis in the Ashok Vana ?
Ans: a) To kill Sita Devi b) To make her accept and love Ravana c) To take all her ornaments away d) To protect Sita Devi
Correct Answers below
Q.1 Ans b)
Q.2 Ans b)
Q.3 Ans c)
Q.4 Ans a)
Q.5 Ans d)
Q.6 Ans b)